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Abbreviations are commonly used within medicine. Where possible
we have explained these throughout the website, however, below is
an explanation of the most commonly used terms.
A copy of the
Glossary of Terms and Acronyms is available to download.
- L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U -
- W -
AAC - The
Advisory Appointment Committee is involved in the
process of making appointments to consultant grade posts.
Assessment of Clinical Expertise (this is a
Workplace Based Assessment).
Academic Clinical Fellowships are specialty
training posts that incorporate academic training. NIHR
Academic Clinical Fellows (
s) spend 75% of their time
undertaking specialist clinical training and 25% undertaking
research or educationalist training.
AHSCs - Academic Health
Science Centres are a part of the Department of Health’s
strategy to encourage
organisations and universities
to work more closely to realise the synergies between research,
education, and health services to deliver better patient care and
create a virtuous circle. This is in line with placing high quality
care at the heart of the
, as envisaged in Lord Darzi’s
report High Quality Care for All. Five such partnerships have been
designated as Academic Health Science Centres through an
international peer review process. The main benefit of becoming an
recognition and prestige it brings.
s are likely to
attract additional funding from outside the
Appraisal - This provides a
complementary approach which focuses on the trainee and his or her
personal and professional needs. All trainees must have a formally
appointed educational supervisor who should provide, through
constructive and regular dialogue, feedback on performance and
assistance in career progression. The Educational Supervisor will
be responsible for bringing together the structured report which
looks at the evidence of progress in training and also for
undertaking workplace based appraisal with their trainees.
ARCP - The Annual Review of
Competence Progression is a process by which trainees in
specialty training have the evidence of their progress reviewed by
a panel. The panel can then make a judgement about the trainee’s
progress and report this to the training programme director, the
trainee and the trainee’s employer.
Assessment - This is a
formally defined process within the curriculum in which a trainee’s
progress in the training programme is evaluated and measured using
a range of defined and validated assessment tools, along with
professional and triangulated judgments about the trainee’s rate of
progress. It results in an outcome following an annual assessment
of the written evidence of progress and is essential if the trainee
is to progress and to confirm that the required competences and
patient safety are being achieved.
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BMA - The
British Medical Association is the
professional body to which the vast majority of British doctors
BMJ - The
British Medical Journal is a medical
journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association.
Basic Surgical Training.
Case Based Discussion (this is a Workplace
CCT - The award
of the Certificate of Completion of Training marks
the end of specialty training, indicating the doctor has reached a
standard compatible with independent practice to enable
registration on the
Specialist Register and hence
eligibility for Consultant appointment. A Certificate of Completion
of Training is awarded to trainees who have trained in posts that
are GMC approved and who have followed the
training programme as detailed in the relevant specialty
CEGPR - The
Certificate confirming Eligibility for GP
Registration is awarded after an applicant has
successfully applied for entry to the
register through Article 11 of the
General and Specialist Medical Practice (Education, Training and
Qualifications) Order 2003.
CEM - College of Emergency
CESR - The
Certificate confirming Eligibility for Specialist
Registration is awarded after an applicant has
successfully applied for entry to the specialist register through
Article 14 of The General and Specialist Medical Practice
(Education, Training and Qualifications) Order 2003.
- The Certificate confirming Eligibility for
Specialist Registration (Combined Programme) is a route to
entry to the Specialist Register for trainees who have been
1 level to
Deanery and GMC approved training programmes from
August 2007 who wish to count time spent in previous non-GMC
Clinical Evaluation Exercise (this is a
Workplace Based Assessment).
Clinical Lectureships are specialty
training posts that incorporate academic training. NIHR
Clinical Lecturers spend 50% of their time undertaking specialist
clinical training and 50% undertaking research or educationalist
Supervisor - A Clinical Supervisor is a trainer
who is selected and appropriately trained to be responsible for
overseeing a specified trainee’s clinical work and providing
constructive feedback during a specific training placement. Some
training schemes appoint an educational supervisor for each
placement. The roles of clinical and educational supervisor may
then be merged.
Continuing Medical Education.
Core Medical Training.
Competence is the possession of requisite or adequate
ability; having acquired the knowledge and skill necessary to
perform those tasks which reflect the scope of professional
practices. It may be different from “performance”, which denotes
what someone is actually doing in a real life situation.
COPMeD - The Conference of Post Graduate Medical
Deans provides a forum in which Postgraduate Deans meet to
discuss current issues, share best practice and agree a consistent
and equitable approach to medical training in all deaneries across
The Conference of General Practice
Directors of Education provides a forum, as
General Practice training.
The Conference of Postgraduate Dental
Core Training -
From 6 August 2008, in England, Northern Ireland and Wales,
certain specialties have “uncoupled”. Core training is the first
stage of uncoupled training.
Training - Coupled specialties are those
that offer run-through training from
Report - Sir Nigel Crisp wrote this
report in 2007. Global health partnerships: the
contribution to health in developing
countries recommends that: “An
framework for international
development should explicitly recognise the value of overseas
experience and training for UK health workers and encourage
educators, employers and regulators to make it easier to gain this
experience and training.
work with the Department of Health, Royal Colleges, medical schools
and others to facilitate overseas training and work
College Specialist Advisory Committee (refer
to College websites for details).
Curriculum - A
curriculum is a statement of the aims and intended learning
outcomes of an educational programme. It states the rationale,
content, organisation, processes and methods of teaching, learning,
assessment, supervision, and feedback. If appropriate, it will also
stipulate the entry criteria and duration of the
Dean’s Advisory Panel.
Darzi Report -
Lord Darzi’s Next Stage Review final report High Quality Care
For All set out a vision for the health service that empowers staff
and gives patients choice. It says health care will be personalised
and fair, include the most effective treatments within a safe
system, and help patients to stay healthy. It gives patients more
say through initiatives such as care plans for those with long term
conditions, a guarantee that the most effective drugs will
be available to all, and provides the right to choose care
People will be helped to stay healthy through the investment of
record amounts in wellbeing and prevention services. Front line
staff will be encouraged to initiate and lead change that improves
quality of care for patients. There will be no new targets from the
centre, with service providers accountable to patients and the
public. There will be a clinical voice at every level of the
service, and investment in new programmes of clinical leadership. A
new workforce strategy will fully support
staff. The new independent
Education England will scrutinise workforce planning proposals for
doctors and dentists. The investment in foundation periods for
nurses will triple and a new tariff-based system for education
funding will see funding follow the student, improving transparency
and rewarding quality.
The regional unit of postgraduate medical education delivery,
supervised by a Postgraduate Dean.
DRN - A
Deanery Reference Number is allocated to all
trainees on core training programmes prior to appointment to a
specialty training programmes, and to
number is unique to the individual trainee but does not lead
to the award of a
conferred through a
on appointment to a specialty
DME - The Director
of Medical Education, also known as a Clinical Tutor, is a
senior clinician appointed jointly by the Deanery and the employing
trust to oversee the delivery of education within the trust on
behalf of the Deanery.
training - Diversity training
is the process of educating professionals to work with people of
widely differing cultural, social and religious
DoH - The
Department of Health is
the government department responsible for public
Domain - The
Domain is the scope of knowledge, skills, competences and
professional characteristics which can be combined for practical
reasons into one cluster.
- Direct Observation of Procedural Skills
(this is a Workplace Based Assessment).
EC Directive 93/16/EEC – the European
Medical Directive - The European Council’s
Directive of 5 April 1993 is designed to facilitate the free
movement of doctors throughout the
and the mutual recognition of their
diplomas, certificates and other evidence of formal
- An Educational Agreement is a mutually acceptable
educational development plan drawn up jointly by the trainee and
their educational supervisor.
Educational Appraisal -
An Educational Appraisal is a positive process to provide
feedback on a trainee’s performance, chart their continuing
progress and identify their developmental needs.
Educational Contract - The
Postgraduate Dean does not employ postgraduate trainees, but
commissions training from the employer normally through an
educational contract with the unit providing postgraduate
education. Through this contract the Postgraduate Dean has a
legitimate interest in matters arising that relate to the education
and training of postgraduate trainees within the employing
Educational Supervisor - An
Educational Supervisor is a trainer who is selected and
appropriately trained to be responsible for the overall supervision
and management of a specified trainee’s educational progress during
a training placement or series of placements, often over a year.
The educational supervisor is responsible for the trainee’s
EEA - European
ESR (Electronic Staff record)
- Staff details in all
organisations in England and
Wales are recorded on an electronic database which may be used for
recruitment, training administration, bank administration, absence,
career management, employee self service and line manager access,
as well as interfaces.
Equality (or Equal
Opportunities) - Equality is the term used to
describe ‘policies and practices that tackle inequalities, aiming
to ensure that all staff are treated fairly, and that service users
do not experience discrimination’.
External Advisors - External
advisors are appointed to the Deanery to provide the public or
professional scrutiny of clinical education. They are drawn from a
wide range of experience and backgrounds in business and public
life or specialised clinical expertise. They are expected to be
independent and impartial and may be medical or lay depending on
the area in which they are required to provide advice or scrutiny.
Lay Advisors may be involved in recruitment and assessment panels
as well as hospital visits.
FICM - Faculty of Intensive Care
Flexi Training - Now called
Less Than Full Time Training (
Foundation Programme - A
Foundation Programme is the first two years undertaken by trainee
doctors after they graduate from medical school. The first year
) is undertaken with
provisional GMC registration and the second year
after they are granted full registration.
Foundation Trusts -
Foundation Trusts are a type
established as independent, not for profit public benefit
corporations with accountability to their local communities rather
than Central Government control. The Secretary of State for Health
has no powers of direction over them.
Foundation Trusts remain
firmly part of the
and exist to provide and develop healthcare services for
patients in a way
that is consistent with NHS standards and principles - free care,
based on need not ability to pay. Clinical activity for private
patients is strictly limited.
Foundation Trusts have greater
freedoms and flexibilities than
Trusts in the way they manage
their affairs e.g.
Foundation Trusts have members drawn from patients, the public and
staff and are governed by a Board of Governors comprising people
elected from and by the membership base.
FPD - The Foundation Programme Director
is the senior clinician appointed jointly by the Trust and
the Deanery to oversee the management of the foundation training
programme within a trust and is responsible for ensuring the
foundation curricula is delivered within the trust. The
Deanery Foundation School Director.
FTSTA - Fixed Term Specialist
GMC - The General Medical
Council is the regulator of the medical profession in the
. A doctor must be included
on the GMC register to practise medicine in
Gold Guide - The four
Health Departments publish 'A Guide
to Postgraduate Specialty Training in the
' which is also known as “Gold Guide”.
This document provides the framework for the postgraduate specialty
training programmes, including general practice. It is primarily
aimed at Postgraduate Deans and their training networks, Medical
Royal Colleges/Faculties, employers and others involved in
Good Medical Practice - A GMC policy
document outlining the duties of a doctor registered with the
General Medical Council.
GP - General
GPVTS - General Practice
Vocational Training Schemes are training programmes run in
deaneries, up to 3 years long, consisting of a combination of
enable the post holders to be able to apply for a
Practice on completion.
Green Book - The
guide for the
Registrar Scheme Vocational Training
for General Medical Practice is known as the Green Book for
Heads of School -
The Heads of School are the senior
clinicians within the Deanery who provide strategic leadership for
the development of the postgraduate school which provides and
co-ordinates the education and training of doctors within a
specific specialty grouping.
HCAIs - Healthcare associated
infections are infections transmitted to patients (and
healthcare workers) as a result of healthcare procedures, in
hospital and other healthcare settings.
Health Economy - A Health Economy
consists of all the local
organisations providing health
in a local geographical area. This includes
Trusts – acute, mental health
and primary care trusts as well as
practices in the area.
HIECs - Health
Innovation Education Clusters are formal partnerships
between academia and the
to encourage innovation and
change in healthcare through training and education, to meet
service needs and drive up the quality of patient care.
have a local focus and take into account the specific configuration
of services and education in their area.
HMT - Higher Medical
HSMP - The Highly Skilled Migrant
Programme has now been phased out. Please refer to the
UK Border Agency’s website
for the most up to date immigration information.
HST - May mean either Higher Specialist
Training or Higher Surgical Training.
Human Rights - The Human Rights Act came into
effect in the
2000. They “are rights and freedoms that belong to all individuals
regardless of their nationality and citizenship. They are
fundamentally important in maintaining a fair and civilised
society. There are 16 basic rights in the Human Rights Act - all
taken from the European Convention on Human Rights. They concern
matters of life and death, but they also cover rights in
everyday life, such as what a person can say or do, their beliefs,
their right to a fair trial and many other basic entitlements”.
IBTICM - Now known as the Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine
IDT - The Inter-Deanery Transfer is a process
through which a trainee on a specialty training programme can
apply, through exceptional circumstances, to transfer to another
deanery within the same specialty. There is a defined process and
timescale for this.
Intrepid - Intrepid is the
Deanery database management system.
Intrepid: Pathway - Intrepid Pathway is an
online Deanery recruitment system.
PathwayISTCs - Independent Sector
Treatment Centres provide services for
patients. They are run by
independent sector organisations, either from the
or overseas. Some of the centres are
single local sites whilst others are part of a chain across the
country on several sites. The work these centres do is either
or, in some cases, is activity transferred from existing
JCST - Joint Committee on Surgical
JRCPTB - Joint Royal College
of Physicians Training Board (was
Committee on Higher Medical Training).
Lay Advisor - A Lay Advisor does not belong to,
is not connected with and does not proceed from the medical
profession. Their responsibility is to attend
School Board and Visits and protect the interest of the public.
Lead Dean - A Lead Dean has a specific
responsibility for a
specialty including working with the relevant Royal College,
faculty or specialty association.
LTFTT - Less than full time
training is an option for trainee doctors who are unable
to train full time and wish to train on a less than full time
basis. Wessex Deanery promotes opportunities for
LAS - A Locum Appointment for
Service is an appointment which provides cover for the
service element of a placement for usually up to 3 months. It is
implicit that because of the short-term, service-based nature of an
there is little structured training or training benefit to be
derived from such an appointment which is therefore not approved
for training purposes.
LAT - A Locum Appointment for Training is an
appointment where it is decided that
training experience can be offered and prospective training
recognition has been given to a locum post.
Medical Education England provides
independent expert advice on training and education for doctors,
dentists, healthcare scientists and pharmacists. The Department of Health established
on 1 January
2009 as a result of the independent inquiry into Modernising
Medical Careers (
MMC - Modernising Medical Careers is a
series of Department of Health reforms to the way
junior doctors are trained in the UK, including the introduction of
Foundation training and the new “run-through” grade.
MPET Levy - Multi-Professional Education and Training
Levy is the funding which comes from the Department of Health to pay for medical
training grades (
– Medical and
Dental Education Levy), non-medical; (NMET) and undergraduate
medical training placements (
– service increment
MRCP - Member of the Royal College of
Physicians, Royal College of Physicians
NCAS - The National Clinical Assessment
Service works with health organisations and individual
practitioners where there is concern about the performance of a
doctor, dentist or pharmacist.
NHSLA - The National Health Service
Litigation Authority is a Special Health Authority (part
responsible for handling negligence claims made against
bodies in England.
In addition to dealing with claims when they arise, they have an
active risk management
programme to help raise standards of care in the
and reduce the number of
incidents leading to claims.
NPSA - The National Patients’ Safety
Agency leads and contributes to improved, safe
patient care by informing, supporting and influencing
organisations and people working in the health sector.
is an arm’s length
body of the Department of Health and through three divisions covers
NTN - National Training Number. This number is
allocated by the postgraduate deanery to trainees in specialty
training programmes which, subject to satisfactory progress, have
an end point of the award of a
Orange Book - The Guide to Specialist
Registrar Training is known as the Orange Book.
OOP - Out of Programme.
is when trainees take time out of
their training programme to undertake a range of activities, with
the agreement of their Postgraduate Deanery.
OOPE - Out of Programme for
which has not been
prospectively approved by the GMC and which cannot be counted
towards training for a
may be suitable
OOPR - Out of Programme for
Research can be counted towards training if it is
prospectively approved by the the GMC. Research can also be considered
OOPT - Out of Programme for Clinical
Training may be prospectively approved by the GMC and can be counted towards a
Postgraduate Dean - The Postgraduate Dean
is the senior doctor responsible for all postgraduate medical
education and training in hospital and general practice in a
particular deanery. They are also accountable to the GMC for the postgraduate medical
education and training in that deanery.
Postgraduate Dean's Representative - The
Postgraduate Deans Representative attends meetings and interviews
to represent the
PMETB - Postgraduate Medical
Education Training Board, now the GMC.
Professionalism - Professionalism is the
adherence to a set of values comprising statutory professional
obligations, formally agreed codes of conduct, and the informal
expectations of patients and colleagues. Key values include acting
in the patients’ best interest and maintaining the standards of
competence and knowledge expected of members of highly trained
professions. These standards will include ethical elements such as
integrity, probity, accountability, duty and honour. In addition to
medical knowledge and skills, medical professionals should present
psychosocial and humanistic qualities such as caring, empathy,
humility and compassion, social responsibility and sensitivity to
people’s culture and beliefs
Programme - A Programme is a managed
educational experience. As defined by the GMC, “a programme consists of a series
of placements in a range of training environments, offered by a
range of training providers and to be used by a number of trainees.
programmes of training in all specialties, including general
practice, which are based on a particular geographical area – which
could be in one or more Deaneries if a programme crosses
boundaries. They are managed by a Training Programme Director
) or their
equivalent. A programme is not a personal programme undertaken by a
Programme Managers - Programme
Managers are managers within the Deanery who co-ordinate and manage
the training programmes and individual trainee requirements,
working with the Heads of School and Programme Directors.
PFT - Permit Free
Training. Overseas doctors who do not hold or who are
not entitled to a right of indefinite residence in the
, who undertake postgraduate training in
the hospital service and who intend to leave the
on completion of training, are able to
Rules commonly known as “permit free” training arrangements.
Changes to the Immigration Rules were introduced in 1997 and enable
overseas doctors in the specialist registrar grade to complete
training programmes which have been agreed with the Postgraduate
PYA - Penultimate Year
QIF - Quality in
Foundation, previously Quality Assurance of the
Foundation Programme (
reports were considered by a Peer Review Group put together by
following a suggestion made at the Quality Conference in 2009
jointly organised with
was from foundation school directors, foundation school managers,
foundation training programme directors, foundation doctors and the
Foundation Programme Office.
The group was tasked with facilitating the process of sharing those
aspects of notable practice highlighted in
which may have a general relevance and identifying any areas for
improvement identified in the report which may have a national
Quality Assurance - Quality Assurance refers to
the overall review undertaken at the level of the Postgraduate
Medical Education and Training Board, the national regulator for
Quality Control - Quality Control refers
to the local review and audit of education that takes place at
Quality Management - Quality management
refers to the processes undertaken by the Deanery to feedback and
improve educational quality.
RA - Regional Advisor.
RCoA - Royal College of Anaesthetists.
RCPCH - Royal College of Paediatrics and Child
RCPath - Royal College of Pathologists.
RCP - Royal College of Physicians.
RCPsych - Royal College of Psychiatrists.
RCR - Royal College of Radiologists.
RCS - Royal College of Surgeons.
RITA - The Record of In-Training
Assessment provides a record of the annual review and
through his training programme and therefore the grade. It should
normally be completed jointly by the trainee and the Postgraduate
Dean or Deanery staff each year. It is not a means of assessment in
Run-through training - Run-through
training is a term used to describe the structure of specialty
training introduced in August 2007 in which trainees are
competitively selected into specialty training curricula which
cover both the early and more advanced years of specialty training.
Once selected into a run-through specialty training programme, a
trainee will be able to complete specialty training in the broad
specialty group or specialty, subject to progress. From 6 August
2008, some specialties have moved away from this model (see
uncoupled training), whilst others have continued with
Sessional Supervisor - The Sessional Supervisor
is the person responsible for overseeing clinical care in that
particular session (evening, morning or night). This person may not
necessarily be a doctor but has the appropriate clinical
SCSHA - NHS South Central Strategic
Health Authority runs from Banbury and Milton Keynes at
its northern edge down to the Isle of Wight in the south. The
region has nine primary care trusts, ten acute hospital trusts,
three mental health trusts, a learning disabilities trust and an
ambulance trust. It serves a population of about 4 million people
across 10,000 sq km.
SAC - The Specialty Advisory
Committee is the usual (but not the only) name used for
the committee which advises the College or Faculty on training
issues and sets the specialty specific standards within the context
of the generic standards of training set by the GMC.
STA - Specialist Training
Authority. Prior to the establishment of
was the competent
authority for specialist training.
SPA - Specialty Programme
ST - Specialist training is the description of
postgraduate training marked by the reforms to postgraduate medical
training which began in 1996 under the Chief Medical Officer.
Trainees appointed to these programmes are known as specialist
Specialty training - Specialty Training is the
description of postgraduate training following the current reforms
to postgraduate medical training and marked by trainees who are
entering training from August 2007 to undertake the new specialty
training curriculum approved by the GMC.
SpR - Specialist
Registrar is the title given to trainees who were
appointed into specialist training prior to January 2007.
StR - Specialty Registrar
is the title given to trainees who are appointed into specialty
training from August 2007.
Stakeholders - A stakeholder is a person, group
of people or organisation that affects or can be affected by the
actions of our organisation as a whole.
STC - Specialty Training
Committee is the usual (but not the only) name used
for the committee which advises and manages training in a specialty
within a Postgraduate Deanery.
SWSHA - South West Strategic Health
Authority. Wessex Deanery covers an area within two
Strategic Health Authorities - South West Strategic Health
Authority and South Central Strategic Health Authority.
Tier System - The points
based system, or Tier System, followed from February 2008 when the
immigration system was reviewed and changes were implemented. An
employer led sponsorship licence system has replaced the work
permit system, requiring employers who recruit and employ migrants
from outside the
and Switzerland to hold a sponsorship licence and issue
certificates of sponsorship to migrants they wish to
Tier 1: Highly skilled individuals to
contribute to growth and productivity
Tier 2: Skilled workers with a job offer to
fill gaps in the
Tier 3: Low skilled workers needed to fill
specific temporary labour shortages – this tier is suspended
Tier 4: Students
Tier 5: Youth mobility and temporary
Tooke Review - Sir John Tooke
led an independent review of a new
set of policies designed to develop and improve postgraduate
medical training and education. This reform programme was known as
Modernising Medical Careers (MMC). Following serious problems with
the recruitment process in 2007 the
England Programme Board,
the medical profession, the
, Deaneries and the Department
of Health have come together to agree a recruitment process which
has been effective in finding the right doctors for the training
posts in the system.
Tomorrow’s Doctors - A
guidance publication which
sets out the duties of a doctor registered with the GMC. It identifies the knowledge,
skills, attitude and behaviour expected of new graduates
TPD - Training
Programme Director, sometimes referred to as
– Programme Director, is a senior
clinician appointed by the Deanery and Postgraduate School to
oversee the management of the training programme for either core or
Trainee - A trainee is a
registered doctor in training.
Transition - Transition is
the move to the new system of training under MMC. Transition began on 1 August 2007
and will finish when the last trainee appointed under the old
curriculum completes their training.
Uncoupled training -
Uncoupled specialties do not offer run through training. In
the specialties where uncoupled training is offered trainees would
be appointed to a 1,2, or 3 year programme dependent on the level
and specialty they were appointed to. For example trainees
appointed at Core Training year 1 (
1) in Core Psychiatry Training would
expect to receive a 3 year contract and then have to compete in
open competition for an
UKCEA - The UK
Conference of Postgraduate Education Advisors in General
Practice promotes education and training related to General
UKFPO - UK Foundation Programme
is the body which
oversees, for the
development of the foundation programme curricula and standards. It
is based in Cardiff.
WPBA - A Workplace Based
Assessment is the evaluation of a doctor’s progress
in their performance in those areas of professional practice which
are best tested in the workplace. It is a process in which evidence
of competence in independent practice is gathered in a structured
and systematic framework. Evidence is collected during training.
The evidence is recorded in a web-based portfolio (the ePortfolio)
and used to inform regular
reviews and, at the end of training, to make a holistic,
qualitative judgment about the readiness of the doctor for
is a developmental
process. It provides feedback to the trainee and drives learning.
It may indicate where a doctor is in difficulty. It is learner led:
the trainee decides which evidence to put forward for review and
validation by the trainer. It is delivered locally by
WTD - The European Working Time
Directive is a directive from the Council of Europe
(93/104/EC) to protect the health and safety of workers in the
European Union. It lays down minimum requirements in relation to
working hours, rest periods, annual leave and working arrangements
for night workers. The Directive was enacted into
law as the Working Time Regulations,
which took effect from 1 October 1998. The Government
negotiated an extension of up to twelve years to prepare for full
implementation for doctors in training. Since 1991, doctors in
training have been covered by the New Deal, a package of measures
to improve the conditions under which they work. One of the key
features of the New Deal is limits on the working hours of junior
doctors. From August 2003 all junior doctors have been limited by
contract to 56 hours of active work. With effect from August 2009,
all junior doctors will be limited by contract to 48 hours of
active work per week.
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